Paper series produced in the framework of a project run by IAI, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies and the National Democratic Institute, with the support of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
• The EU’s Struggle with Normative Leadership in Sub-Saharan Africa, by B.Venturi
Africa and Europe are close neighbours and the EU has a strong interest in strengthening relations with Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries and organisations. The EU’s complex and multi-layered development cooperation in Africa is presented analysing the main agreements and some critical issues, such as the link with trade liberalisation over development or conditionality to incentivise democratic governance. At the same time, addressing the instability of the African continent represents a major concern for EU Member States, as they are experiencing its repercussions in terms of irregular immigration, drugs, arms and human trafficking, terrorism and organised crime. On the basis of the most recent trends in the EU’s development and security relations with SSA, the paper formulates a series of policy recommendations for the EU and the US on how to engage in SSA, also triangulating with other global powers.
• Brazil as a Security and Development Provider in Africa: Consequences and Opportunities for Europe and North America, by F.Mattheis
Brazil’s involvement in Africa rose to unprecedented levels during the first decade of the twenty-first century. The country’s ambition to become a leader of the Global South was implemented through participation in United Nations missions on the African continent, military training, technical cooperation and the forging of alliances with African countries. In return, Brazil benefited from political support for its leadership aspirations in global arenas. Dilma Rousseff has pursued a less enthusiastic approach, accelerated by Brazil’s ongoing domestic crises. This has resulted in a re-focusing on niche strengths. This contraction provides Europe and the US with an opportunity to pull Brazil back into a cooperative framework for development and security with Western actors.
• China's Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa, by A.K.Stahl
This paper provides an overview of China’s relations with Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In addition to outlining the general contours of China’s engagement in SSA, it gives particular attention to China’s relations with SSA in the two policy areas of development and security. Moreover, it examines how China’s leadership change in 2012 has affected the country’s policy in SSA. On the basis of the most recent trends in China’s development and security relations with SSA, the paper formulates a series of policy recommendations for the EU and the US on how to engage China in SSA.
• Security, Development, and Diplomacy: Solving the Puzzle of the US-Sub-Saharan Africa Strategy?, by M.Goerg
The growing complexity and sophistication of the United States’ engagement with Africa points to its increased interest in the continent. The US Department of Defence, the US Agency for International Development and the US State Department are key actors in US policy toward sub-Saharan Africa, respectively implementing the three Ds of defence, development and diplomacy. Given the current budgetary constraints and inward-looking trends in both the US and many European countries, existing coordination and cooperation mechanisms should be strengthened to ensure a greater alignment and effectiveness of transatlantic engagement with African countries on security and development issues.
• Turkey's African Experience: From Venture to Normalisation, by M.Özkan
Between 2005 and 2015, Turkey’s Sub-Saharan Africa policy has been transformed in such a way that it now constitutes one of the main focuses of Ankara’s foreign policy. Initially begun with a modest humanitarian dimension, it now ranges across economic, social, political and security relations. This paper argues that Turkey’s foreign and development policy towards Africa has changed at ideational, societal and institutional levels. All levels can be observed in Turkey’s approach to Sub-Saharan Africa and indicate that Ankara’s policy has reached a degree of normalisation, in the sense that it is no longer ‘new’ but rather constitutes a usual and normal dimension to Turkey’s foreign policy.
• The Role of Gulf States in Peace and Security and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, by L.T.Shiferaw
Gulf states’ – particularly Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the UAE – are emerging as influential security and development actors on the world stage. This paper identifies contemporary factors that drive the Gulf states’ peace and security engagement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in general and the Horn of Africa (HoA) in particular. It examines Gulf-HoA relations by analysing the reasons for, and regional ramifications of the involvement of HoA countries’ in the Saudi-led 2015 military intervention in Yemen. The paper also discusses the economic engagement of the Gulf states in SSA and lays out the characteristics that distinguish their approach to development cooperation from that of the EU and the US.